Bangalore, also known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is India's third-largest city with an estimated population of 8,474,970 (2011). In a recent survey, conducted by the global HR consultancy Mercer, Bangalore was voted the most liveable city in India, beating Mumbai , Chennai , New Delhi and Kolkata..In terms of cleanliness, Bangalore ranks 12th in India. Once called the "Garden City of India" and the "Pensioner's Paradise", these epithets no longer apply to Bangalore, which is now a large, cosmopolitan city with diminishing green spaces and a large working population. Bangalore is the major center of India's IT industry, popularly known as the Silicon Valley of India. History The earliest records of a place named 'Bengaluru' are found in a 9th century temple in an area that is now known as 'Old Bangalore'. Legend has it that the feudal lord Kempe Gowda was once hunting in this area, a rabbit turned and attacked his dog. This made a great impression on Gowda and he gave the place a title of gandu bhoomi (the place of heroes) and in 1537, with the assistance of the local king, he constructed three districts protected by a walled fort on the site. During the next three centuries, Bangalore existed very much in the shadow of its neighboring city Mysore, and control of the town changed hands many times.
The year 1831 marked a major turning point for the city. Claiming misrule by the king Krishna Raja Wodeyar III, the British took control of the Mysore Kingdom and, possibly influenced by the city's salubrious climate, moved the administrative capital to Bangalore. New telecommunication systems were laid, rail connections built, fine government buildings constructed, and the city's famous parks and gardens established. After independence, Bangalore maintained its position as the Karnataka state capital, and continues to flourish.For many years, Bangalore was known throughout India as the most green, liberal and forward-thinking city. In recent years, these attributes have propelled Bangalore to the forefront of the high-tech industry boom in India, and it currently ranks as India's most developed city and one of the world's fastest growing urban areas. The name Bangalore appears to come from an Anglicisation of the native name "Bengaluru" - an adaptation of the earlier name in Kannada: Benda Kaalu Uru (The Town of Boiled Beans). Apparently this rather humble name was bequeathed to the city by King Vira Ballala. Once while lost in the area, he was offered boiled beans by an old woman, and it was out of gratitude that he named the area after this simple offering.